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Centrifugal Chiller

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A centrifugal chiller uses an impeller wheel to create pressure in the refrigerant gas by the velocity of its rotation. When the refrigerant enters the centrifugal compressor, its pressure must be raised to enter the condenser. The rotation of the impeller in a centrifugal compressor creates the necessary driving force to increase the pressure of the gasses from the evaporator Read More…

Centrifugal Chiller Centrifugal chillers are a type of vapor-compression chiller that uses centrifugal motion to create pressure to drive the cooling process. The chiller's centrifugal compressor pressurizes a coolant vapor before it enters the condenser, where it is cooled by a flow of air or water.
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Leading Manufacturers

Houston, TX  |  800-473-9178

Founded in the late 1970’s, Cold Shot Chillers has been a designer & liquid chillers manufacturer. Our liquid chillers are of the best quality, offered at low costs with long warranties. Our company's focus is to provide flexible cooling solutions for all industries through the use of high quality components. We serve plastic processing, food & beverage & metal finishing industries and much more.

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Cold Shot Chillers $$$

Richfield, WI  |  800-733-4204

Industry leading, eco- friendly technology from Delta T Systems is setting the pace with energy efficient portable or packaged chiller systems and temperature control units. Our expansive standard product line has been successfully applied in a broad variety of industries for over 30 years. And for applications that require unique features or functionality, our custom design team has the know-how to build the perfect match to your unique requirements. Visit deltatsys.com or call with your application requirement for responsive service.

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Delta T Systems, Inc. $$$

Niles, IL  |  888-764-1428

Since 1969, Thermal Care has been a leading manufacturer of portable and central chillers in air cooled, water cooled, and remote condenser models.

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Thermal Care, Inc. $$$

Kalamazoo, MI  |  800-968-5665

We have manufacturing experiences dating back to 1952 and over the years Glen Dimplex Thermal Solutions has grown in an international provider of high quality chillers. We operate out of an ISO-9001 facility and our teams work hard to bring you the very best chillers. Our teams will even work with you to create a custom chiller. Please give us a call today!

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Glen Dimplex Thermal Solutions $$$

Waltham, MA  |  800-678-5599

Whether our customers aim to increase productivity in their laboratories, accelerate life sciences research, or solve complex analytical challenges, our team at Thermo Fisher Scientific knows the importance of having the right equipment. Our chillers are reliable, user-friendly, easy to maintain, and feature an intuitive user interface for efficient operation. Thermo Fisher Scientific’s goal is to advance the evolution of scientific application to make the world a safer place.

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Thermo Fisher Scientific $$$

Mansfield, MA  |  800-960-1036

Thermonics® offers a range of process chillers for low (-40°C) and ultra-low (-100°C) temperature cooling. Products include air- and water-cooled chillers, and cryogenic chillers for cooling gasses and fluids. Chillers are compatible with a variety of heat transfer fluids delivering cooling capacities up to 25kW at -90°C, satisfying demands for industrial and mil/aero applications. We are a USA based manufacturer with ISO and ITAR registrations.

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Thermonics Chillers $$$

Miami Gardens, FL  |  305-887-5449

Universal Chilling Systems offers a range of units, seamlessly designed to serve a variety of industries, including metal working, die-casting, machine tooling, chemical processing, food and beverage processing, and more. Founded by three colleagues with over 75 years of experience in the plastic industry, Universal Chilling Systems produces units that include all major components in an efficient design. Available applications include air cooled, low temperature, and water cooled, with typical capacities ranging from 5 to 40 tons.

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Universal Chilling Systems $$$
placeholder image Cold Shot Chillers Delta T Systems, Inc. Thermal Care, Inc. Glen Dimplex Thermal Solutions Thermo Fisher Scientific Thermonics Chillers Universal Chilling Systems

A centrifugal chiller uses an impeller wheel to create pressure in the refrigerant gas by the velocity of its rotation. When the refrigerant enters the centrifugal compressor, its pressure must be raised to enter the condenser. The rotation of the impeller in a centrifugal compressor creates the necessary driving force to increase the pressure of the gasses from the evaporator.

In a chiller system, the compressor is placed between the evaporator and the condenser. It is responsible for increasing the pressure in the refrigerant gasses, while the evaporator changes the liquid refrigerant into gas. Then, it passes it to the compressor, which increases the temperature and pressure of the created gas before it is passed on to the condenser.

Centrifugal Chiller System

How a Centrifugal Chiller Works

A centrifugal chiller uses a vapor compression cycle to chill water and remove heat from the water and the compressor.

Evaporator

The evaporator is a heat exchanger that removes heat from chilled water. The collected heat is used to superheat the refrigerant to change it from a liquid to a gas. The water in a chiller system collects heat, which has to be removed as part of the chiller cycle. Evaporators are tightly sealed to ensure their efficiency and that they do not allow the heat in the water to escape. In most cases, the insulation material is a vinyl nitrate polymer that is 0.75 of an inch (20 mm) thick.

Evaporators have a shell and tube construction with the tubes encased inside the shell. The shell holds the refrigerant while the tubes contain the water to be cooled. In all chillers, the water in the tubes and the refrigerant never come in contact.

The refrigerant enters the evaporator as a liquid through the bottom of the expansion valve. Refrigerants have a very low boiling point. However, the heat from the warm chilled water causes the refrigerant to boil and become a vapor.

The number of passes describes the type of an evaporator, which can be one, two, or more. With a one-pass evaporator, the water passes through one time and into the water box. When an evaporator has multiple passes, the water passes through the evaporator, turns around, and goes back through it two or more times.

Evaporator Passes

Centrifugal Compressor

The refrigerant gas created by the evaporator passes into the centrifugal compressor with four main parts: the inlet, impeller, diffuser, and collector. In the centrifugal compressor, the rotation of the impeller builds up kinetic energy to expel the gasses into the condenser.

Main Parts of a Centrifugal Compressor
  1. Inlet

    The inlet is a pipe where the gas from the evaporator enters the compressor. The different types of inlets include openings, valves, or channels. They direct the flow in the proper direction into the compressor.

  2. Impeller

    In a centrifugal compressor, the impeller is the critical component that generates the necessary centrifugal force. It contains a rotor with angled vanes that spin to raise the energy in the gasses.

  3. Diffuser

    As the impeller spins, it throws the gasses outward where they hit the diffuser, which takes the kinetic energy from the rapid rotation and slows the velocity of the gasses. The decrease in speed increases the pressure of the gasses. There are several ways that the diffuser slows the gasses' motion, including channels and wedged vanes.

  4. Collector

    The collector is an empty chamber where the flow from the diffuser is collected. It has the shape of circular spiral arcs that are designed such that they can capture the complete radius of the impeller and diffuser. Certain forms of collectors, much like inlets, have valves and other features.

Condenser

The condenser has a function similar to that of the evaporator in that it is a heat exchanger. In the condenser, the liquid refrigerant that has been changed into a gas is returned to its liquid form. As the gas moves through the tubes of the condenser, its heat is removed and placed in water that flows around the tubes. Finally, the collected heat is released using a cooling tower in a water chiller or a set of fans in an air chiller.

Expansion Valve

Expansion valves control the flow of the refrigerant and help change the liquid refrigerant to gas by slowly releasing small amounts of liquid into the evaporator. The configuration and types of expansion valves vary from a simple opening to a complex electronic expansion valves.

When the newly created liquid moves from the condenser back to the evaporator, it must have its pressure change from the high pressure of the condenser to the low pressure required by the evaporator. The expansion valve is designed to maintain the pressure differential between the condenser and evaporator. For the refrigerant to be able to absorb heat in the evaporator, it has to be at low pressure.

Automatic Expansion Valve

Centrifugal Chiller Maintenance

Centrifugal maintenance tasks:

  • Oil Change
  • Acid Removal from Compressor Discharge
  • R134a Refrigerant Exclusively for Centrifugal Chillers
  • Metal Build-Up in the Compressor
  • Change Oil Filters
  • Regular Check of Compressor Oil
  • Check for Leaks in “O” Rings and Shaft Seals

Centrifugal Chiller Informational Video

 

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